Methods of IPM

IPM programs employ a variety of methods and technologies in order to achieve successful pest control while reducing economic, ecological, and human health concerns. The following sections discuss IPM techniques.



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Cultural Restraints


Cultural controls entail altering the pest's biological and physical habitat in order to make it less attractive. Crop rotations, sanitation, irrigation, and water management are all examples.


Biological Containment


Biological control is the process of suppressing a pest population by the use of live creatures such as parasitoids (parasites), predators, or diseases. Lady Beetles are often used as predators in biological control. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a well-known insect pathogen that is used in a variety of IPM applications.


Application of Resistant Cultivars


This strategy is the adoption of cultivars of plants that have hereditary traits that protect the plants against pest assault. The adoption of resistant cultivars is critical in the management of plant pathogens, nematodes, and insect pests.


Modification of Behavior


Behavioral modification techniques employ visual, pharmacological, or auditory cues to alter or interrupt typical pest behavior. The scarecrow is a classic example, as are the current applications of sex pheromone mating disruption for insect pest management.


Controls, Both Physical and Mechanical


Physical controls entail erecting physical barriers against the pests or manipulating the temperature or composition of the air to kill the arachnids, insects or pests. Mechanical control entails the removal or eradication of pest organisms via the use of physical labor or machines.